Horizontal / Vertical Integration
Vertical – How big companies control its own operations.
For example, a company making their own DVDs, making the films etc.
Horizontal – How big companies will buy other smaller companies to do their work.
For example, Apple buys a smaller company who makes the Siri software. The software is then labeled as an Apple product, and placed within Apple devices.
Theatrical / Non-Theatrical Exhibition
Theatrical – The showing of media within a theater.
Non-Theatrical – The showing of media outside of a theater, for example at home.
Gorilla Filmmaking – Anyone can make a film, due to the low cost, low skill technologies available today.
Synergy – Bla Bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla bla
Symbiosis – Using another companies’ needs to your own benefit.
For example, a film company making a contract with McDonalds to allow their characters to be used in happy meal toys. McDonalds’ toys make children drag their parents to McDonalds, spending money, but also works as a free advertising technique.
Technological Disruption – One entity knocked out by another.
For example, modern phones’ development knocking out the old-er Nokia 3310 devices.
Media Ownership – Who owns the media.
Media Conglomerates – Who owns the companies?
For example, Google owns many smaller companies, so any work of these smaller companies are essentially the property (by proxy) of Google.
Concentration of Ownership – The amount that companies own within a product or another company.
Targeted / Integrated Advertising
Targeted – Targeting advertising at a certain audience.
For example, a children’s film is more likely to advertise on a children’s TV channel, not the Sky news channel.
Integrated – Advertising which is integrated into normal life.
For example, a billboard or film poster in a public place, such as street.
Gross / Media Ownership – Big companies owning lots of media companies.
For example, Warner Brothers owns many many companies, such as the movie studio, music-production/release studio etc.
“The Big 6” – The six big companies who majoritively own the market.
- Warner Bros.
- 20th Century Fox
- Walt Disney
Distribution – The act of getting film from the production company to the viewer.
Exhibition – The screening of a film, either in the cinema or via the use of personal technologies.
“Lionsgate 20” – The $20,000,000 used by film producer Lionsgate to advertise their new films.
Section B of the exam looks at the institutions and audiences of media products. Each year, as with every other exam, the question changes slightly, but still revolves around the same base. The exam expects an answer which uses case studies from the last five years, in order to answer the question.
The section is worth 50 marks. Examiners made the following comments, which should be taken into account when writing an answer for this section:
- Media examples and case-studies should be mainly from the five years preceding the examination.
- The most able candidates were well prepared, which enabled them to compare and contrast a range of examples through the case studies set. These focused on a studio, often Hollywood practise and UK film making.
- There were good comments about the use of social media and mobile technology to market films and candidates were able to support their comments with examples.
Below, are the previous questions for Section B of the exam, from June 2016 to the January 2009 exam.
To what extent has the internet played a significant role in the marketing and exchange of media products in the area you have studied?
To what extent does media ownership have an impact on the successful distribution of media products in the media area that you have studied?
The increase in hardware and content in media industries has been significant in recent years. Discuss the effect this has had on institutions and audiences in the media area you have studied.
Evaluate the role of digital technologies in the marketing and consumption of products in the media area you have studied.
What impact does media ownership have upon the range of products available to audiences in the media area you have studied?
“Cross-media convergence and synergy are vital processes in the successful marketing of media products to audiences.”
To what extent do you agree with this statement in relation to your chosen media area?
To what extent does digital distribution affect the marketing and consumption of media products in the media area you have studied?
“Successful media products depend as much upon marketing and distribution to a specific audience as they do upon good production practices.”
To what extent would you agree with this statement, within the media area you have studied?
Discuss the issues raised by media ownership in the production and exchange of media texts in your chosen media area.
What significance does the continuing development of digital media technology have for media institutions and audiences?
“Media production is dominated by global institutions, which sell their products and services to national audiences.”
To what extent do you agree with this statement?
How important is technological convergence for institutions and audiences within a media area which you have studied?
Discuss the ways in which media products are produced and distributed to audiences, within a media area, which you have studied.
Looking back at your preliminary task, what do you feel you have learnt in the progression from it to the full product?
What have you learnt about technologies from the process of constructing this product?
Question 5: How did you attract/address your audience?